IP-SMC

From Icelandic Parsed Historical Corpus (IcePaHC)
Jump to: navigation, search

Partial list of small clause licensers in Icelandic: KALLA, ÞYKJA, SÝNAST, VIRÐAST, FINNAST, HEITA, ÍMYNDA, SEGJA, TELJA, SKÍRA

For a list of small clause licensers, see the list in the English corpora guidelines.

Predicates which always take an IP-SMC complement when they take 2 NP arguments: KALLA, ÞYKJA

HEITA

Not used for HEITA when HEITA takes only 2 arguments:

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ og-og)
	      (NP-SBJ *con*)
	      (VBPI heitir-heita)
	      (NP-PRD (NPR-N Sigga-sigga))
	      (. ,-,)))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N-N Vermundur-vermundur))
	  (VBDI hét-heita)
	  (NP-OB1 (PRO-A hann-hann))
	  (PP (P á-á)
	      (NP (N-A braut-braut)))
	  (. ,-,)))

But when HEITA takes 3 arguments, as in "John named the boy Paul", the latter 2 arguments form a small clause, as below:

Þau hétu (IP-SMC hann Pál).

ÍMYNDA

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-N Ég-ég))
	  (MDPI get-geta)
	  (NEG ekki-ekki)
	  (VBN ímyndað-ímynda)
	  (NP-OB2 (PRO-D mér-ég))
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (N-A móðurást$-móðurást) (D-A $ina-hinn))
		  (ADJP (ADJ-A öðruvísi-öðruvísi)))
	  (, ,-,)))

DÆMA

						     (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *con*)
								 (VBPI dæmið-dæma)
								 (IP-SMC-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO-D yður-þú)
										     (NP-PRN (PRO-A sjálfa-sjálfur)))
									     (ADJP (ADJ-G óverðuga-óverðugur)
										   (NP (ADJ-G eilífs-eilífur)
										       (NP-POS (N-G lífs-líf)))))))))))

KALLA

Used for kalla 'call', as in Hann kallaði mig svín 'He called me a.pig'. Parsed as in historical English corpora:

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
              (NP-SBJ (Q som) (NS men))
              (VBD called)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
                      (NP-TMP (Q+N somtyme))
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N Quene)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (D the) (NPR Wast) (NPR Landis)))))
              (. ,))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (NP-SBJ-1 (D-N sú-sá))
	  (VAN kölluð-kalla)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
		  (NP-PRD (NP-POS (N-G iðranar-iðrun))
			  (N-N skírn-skírn)))
	  (. .-.))
  (ID HOMILIUBOK,.225))
					  (NP-PRN (D-G þess-sá)
						  (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
							  (C sem-sem)
							  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-3 *T*-2)
								  (VAN kallaður-kalla)
								  (BEDI var-vera)
								  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-3)
									  (NP-PRD (NPR-N Markús-markús)))))))))

Not used for the two argument kallast (lemma kalla) 'be called', as in Postular kallast salt jarðar 'Apostles are called salt of the earth', where postular are the subject and salt jarðar the predicate (NP-PRD). The same goes for "teljast".

NEFNA

( (IP-MAT (CODE <P_95>)
	  (NP-SBJ-1 (NPR-N Maður-maður))
	  (BEPI er-vera)
	  (VAN nefndur-nefna)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
		  (NP-PRD (NPR-N Sjóður-sjóður)))
	  (. .-.))
  (ID 1450.VILHJALMUR.NAR-SAG,95.1935))
	  (VBDI lét-láta)
	  (NP-SBJ (N-N kóngur$-kóngur) (D-N $inn-hinn))
	  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
		  (VB nefna-nefna)
		  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO-A það-það))
			  (NP-PRN (NPR-A Patientia-patientia))))
	  (. .-.)))

Not used for the two argument NEFNAST (lemma nefna) 'be named', as with KALLAST above.

ÞYKJA, SÝNAST, VIRÐAST, FINNAST, LÍTAST

Also used for þykja, sýnast, virðast, as in the example below. ÞYKJA, SÝNAST, VIRÐAST, FINNAST, LÍTAST, REYNAST always take a small clause complement, even if they have only 2 arguments, except with 1 argument use of SÝNAST: Hann er bara að sýnast 'He is just pretending'.

ÞYKJAST does not take an IP-SMC complement; it is treated like KALLAST.

If ÞYKJA, SÝNAST, VIRÐAST have an external NP-SBJ, it is always the person/entity doing the thinking. If there is no such person/entity, then the NP-SBJ of ÞYKJA, SÝNAST, VIRÐAST is raised from inside the IP-SMC, and is parsed in the usual way for traces of A-movement, as in the PPCME2/PPCEME guidelines and as in the example below:

( (IP-MAT (NP-1 (D-N Þessar-þessi) (NS-N fréttir-frétt))
	  (VBDI þóttu-þykja)
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR-D Sigríði-sigríður))
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
		  (NEG ekki-ekki)
		  (ADJP (ADJ-N góðar-góður)))
	  (. ,-,)))


( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO-N hann-hann))
	  (VBDI þótti-þykja)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
		  (ADJP (ADVR svo-svo)
			(ADJ-N ötull-ötull)
			(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
			       (ADJX (ADJ-N laglegur-laglegur)))
			(PP (P til-til)
			    (NP (Q-G allra-allur) (NS-G verka-verk)))
			(, ,-,)
			...

Also notice that the subject of the small clause, the embedded IP-INF, is extraposed in this case (a frequent occurrence when the small clause subject is a clause). As in the normal case of extraposed IP-INF subjects or extraposed CP-THT, the extraposed IP-INF is coindexed with "it":

( (IP-MAT (VBDI þótti-þykja)
	  (NP-SBJ (NS-D bændum-bóndi)
		  (PP (P í-í)
		      (NP (NPR-D Hólshrepp-hólshrepp))))
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=1 (ES-N það))
		  (ADJP (ADJ ÍSJÁRVERT-ÍSJÁRVERÐUR))
		  (IP-INF-1 (TO að-að)
			    (VB gjöra-gjöra)
			    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (N-A kerlingu-kerling))
				    (ADVP-LOC (ADV þar-þar))
				    (ADJP (ADJ sveitlæga-sveitlægur)))
			    (PP (P eftir-eftir)
				(NP (ADJP (ADVR svo-svo) (ADJ ÓLJÓSU-ÓLJÓS))
				    (N-D handriti-handrit)))))
	  (. .-.)))

If there is no overt "það", then there is no empty expletive added to the structure, and the IP-INF is simply treated as a postposed subject, as in the guidelines for Expletives. Note that this is also different from the English corpora.

( (IP-MAT (VBDI þótti-þykja)
	  (NP-SBJ (NS-D bændum-bóndi)
		  (PP (P í-í)
		      (NP (NPR-D Hólshrepp-hólshrepp))))
	  (IP-SMC (ADJP (ADJ ÍSJÁRVERT-ÍSJÁRVERÐUR))
		  (IP-INF-SBJ (TO að-að)
			    (VB gjöra-gjöra)
			    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (N-A kerlingu-kerling))
				    (ADVP-LOC (ADV þar-þar))
				    (ADJP (ADJ sveitlæga-sveitlægur)))
			    (PP (P eftir-eftir)
				(NP (ADJP (ADVR svo-svo) (ADJ ÓLJÓSU-ÓLJÓS))
				    (N-D handriti-handrit)))))
	  (. .-.)))

...but it could have been overt as well, as below:

or the empty expletive counterpart to "it" in the subject position of the IP-SMC. In this case, it is the empty expletive...

LÁTA

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBDI létu-láta)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO-A þá-hann))
		  (ADJP (ADJ-A lausa-laus)))))

GERA

GERAST takes an NP-PRD, but there is a construction where GERA appears to raise its subject out of an (accusative) IP-SMC.

                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (PRO-N hann))
			    (DODI gerði)
			    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
				    (ADJP (ADJ-A þungan)))))

HAFA

	  (ADVP-RSP (ADV þá-þá))
	  (HVPI hefi-hafa)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N ég-ég))
	  (PP (P af-af)
	      (NP (PRO-D því-það)))
	  (ADJP-LOC (ADJR-D fyrri-fyrri))
	  (IP-SMC (VBN-A setta-setja)
		  (NP-SBJ (PRO-A þá-hann)))

Small clauses as complements of P

Small clauses can be complements of prepositions, notably AÐ (very much like English WITH).

Examples:

  • að liðnu nóni
  • að liðnu sumri
  • að meðteknu heilags anda fyrirheiti
  • að sumri liðnu
  • að honum látnum
  • að hálfnaðri hátíðinni
( (IP-MAT (PP (P Að-að)
	      (IP-SMC (VAN liðnu-líða)
		      (NP-SBJ (N-D nóni-nón))))
	  (BEDI voru-vera)
	  (NP-SBJ (QS-N flestir-margur) (NS-N leitarmenn-leitarmaður))
	  (VBN komnir-koma)
	  (. ;-;)))
  • að svo mæltu
( (IP-MAT (PP (P Að-að)
	      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		      (ADVP (ADV svo-svo))
		      (VAN-D mæltu-mæla)))
	  (VBDI kvöddust-kveðja)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N þeir-hann))
	  (PP (P með-með)
	      (NP (NS-D kærleikum-kærleikur)))))
  • við svo búið
( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBPI skilja-skilja)
	  (PP (P við-við)
	      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		      (ADVP (ADV svo-svo))
		      (VAN-A búið-búa)))
	  (. .-.))
  (ID 1350.FINNBOGI.NAR-SAG,648.1319))

Dative subject + Small clause

  • (NP-SBJ Þér) er (IP-SMC heimil ólin)
  • (NP-SBJ Antoni) er (IP-SMC setningin erfið)
  • (NP-SBJ Þér) er (IP-SMC hart að bakspyrna í mót broddunum)
( (IP-MAT (ADJP-1 (ADJ-N Hart-harður))
	  (BEPI er-vera)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-D þér-þú))
	  (IP-SMC (IP-INF-SBJ (TO að-að)
			      (VB bakspyrna-bakspyrna)
			      (PP (P í-í)
				  (NP (N-A mót-mót)
				      (NP-COM (NS-D broddu$-broddur) (D-D $num-hinn)))))
		  (ADJP *ICH*-1))
	  (. .-.)))

IP-SMC idoms NP-SBJ and RPX

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBDI fann-finna)
	  (ADVP-LOC (ADV þar-þar))
	  (NP-OB1 (N-A eikarspjald-eikarspjald)
		  (PP (P með-með)
		      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (NUM-D tveimur-tveir) (ADJ-D svörtum-svartur) (NS-D galdrastöfum-galdrastafur))
			      (RPX á-á))))
	  (. .-.)))

Various examples

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ (D-N þær-hún)
		  (, ,-,)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
			  (C sem-sem)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (ADVP (ADV svo-svo))
				  (BEDI voru-vera)
				  (ADJP (ADJ-N sinnaðar-sinnaður)))))
	  (, ,-,)
	  (VBDI kölluðu-kalla)
	  (PP (P eftir-eftir)
	      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO-D honum-hann))
		      (CP-ADV (WNP-2 0)
			      (C sem-sem)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
				      (NP-PRD (N-D vitafé-vitafé))))))))