Conjunction

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Word-level conjunction

See the PPCEME, PPCME2 guidelines.

Conjunctions

og, en, eða ...

CONJP "svo og":

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Á)
	      (NP (D-A þennan) (N-A hátt)))
	  (HVPI hefur)
	  (NP-OB1 (NP-PRN (PRO-N sjálfur))
		  (NPR-N guð))
	  (PP (CONJ bæði)
	      (PP (P með)
		  (NP (ADJ-D ljósum) (NS-D orðum)))
	      (CONJP (ADVP (ADV svo))
		     (CONJ og)
		     (PP (P með)
			 (NP (ADJ-D fáheyrðum) (NS-D dæmum)))))

Verbs

(VAN (VAN máður) (CONJ og) (VAN ritaður))
(VBN (VBN máð) (CONJ og) (VBN ritað))
(VB (VB má) (CONJ og) (VB rita))
(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB (VB read) (CONJ and) (VB write))
        (NP-OB1 (NS letters)))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBPI taka-taka)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV þá-þá))
	  (IP-INF (TO að-að)
		  (VB (VB varðveita-varðveita) (CONJ og-og) (VB halda-halda))
		  (NP-OB1 (NP (NP-POS (N-G þrenningar-þrenning))
			      (N-A trúu-trú))
			  (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
				 (NP (N-A hlýðni-hlýðni)
				     (NP-POS (NS-G boðorða-boðorð)
					     (NP-POS (NUM-G fjögurra-fjórir) (NS-G guðspjalla-guðspjall)))))))
	  (. .-.)))

Determiners

			  (IP-INF-PRP (IP-INF-PRP (TO að-að)
						  (VB sækja-sækja)
						  (NP-OB1 (D-A (D-A hitt-hinn) (CONJ og-og) (D-A þetta-þessi))
							  (ADJ-A smálegt-smálegur)
							  (, ,-,)
							  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
								  (C er-er)
								  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
									  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hún-hún))
									  (VBDS ætti-eiga)
									  (ADVP (ADV eftir-eftir))
									  (PP (P í-í)
									      (NP (N-D hús$-hús)
										  (D-D $inu-hinn)
										  (NP-POS (PRO-D sínu-sinn)))))))

Adverbs

Conjunction on the word-level, with and without overt conjunctions:

( (IP-MAT (CONJ En-en)
	  (PP (P á-á)
	      (NP (D-D þessi-þessi) (D-D inni-inni) (ADJ-D himnesku-himneskur) (N-D borg-borg)))
	  (BEPI eru-vera)
	  (NP-SBJ (NS-N hlið-hlið))
	  (ADVP-LOC (ADV austan-austan) (CONJ og-og) (ADV vestan-vestan) (, ,-,) (ADV sunnan-sunnan) (CONJ og-og) (ADV norðan-norðan))
	  (. .-.)))

RP+ADV:

(ADVP-DIR (RP to) (CONJ and) (ADV fro))

Prepositions

See here.

Quantifiers

(NP (QP (Q many) (CONJ and) (ADJ divers))
    (NS waies)))

CONJPs with empty heads

See PPCEME documentation.

Phrase-level conjunction

When any of the conjunct consists of more than a single word (see PPCME/PPCEME)

(XP (XP (X first-conjunct))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction)
           (YP (Y second-conjunct)))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction)
           (ZP (Z third-conjunct) (Z more-of-third-conjunct))))

Phrase-level conjunction (CONJP) with and without CONJ:

	  (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO-N Eg-eg))
		      (BEPI em-vera)
		      (NP-PRD (NP (N-N vegur$-vegur) (D-N $inn-hinn))
			      (, ,-,)
			      (CONJP (NP (N-N sannleikur$-sannleikur) (D-N $inn-hinn)))
			      (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
				     (NP (N-N líf$-líf) (D-N $ið-hinn)))))
	  (. .-.)))

NPs

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
	  (ADVP (ADV Þá-þá))
	  (BEPI eru-vera)
	  (NP-1 (OTHERS-N aðrir-annar)
		(, ,-,)
		(CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
			(C sem-sem)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
				(VBPI kenna-kenna)
				(NP-OB1 (NP (N-D hafís$-hafís) (D $num-hinn))
					(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
					       (NP (N-D timbureklu$-timburekla) (D $nni-hinn))))
				(PP (P um-um)
				    (, ,-,)
				    (CP-THT (C að-að)
					    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-N land$-land) (D $ið-hinn))
						    (BEPS sé-vera)
						    (ADJP (ADJR strjálbyggðara-strjálbyggður)
Word and phrase level conjunction
				  (NP-SBJ (NP (NPR-N Pétur-pétur) (CONJ og-og) (NPR-N Jakobus-jakobus))
					  (, ,-,)
					  (CONJP (NP (NPR-N Jóhannes-jóhannes) (, ,-,) (NPR-N Andreas-andreas) (, ,-,) (NPR-N Filippus-filippus) (, ,-,) (NPR-N Tómas-tómas) (, ,-,) (N-N Bartalameus-bartalameus) (CONJ og-og) (NPR-N Matteus-matteus)))
					  (, ,-,)
					  (CONJP (NP (NP (NPR-N Jakobus-jakobus) (NPR-N Alfei-alfei))
						     (, ,-,)
						     (CONJP (NP (NPR-N Símon-símon) (NPR-N Selotes-selotes)))
						     (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
							    (NP (NPR-A Júdas-júdas) (NPR-N Jakobus-jakobus) (NPR-N bróðir-bróðir))))))))))

IPs

	  (CP-THT-1 (C að-að)
		    (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-N fátækrastjórn$-fátækrastjórn) (D $in-hinn))
				    (VBPS sundri-sundra)
				    (NP-OB1 (NS-D HREPPSTJÓRU$-HREPPSTJÓRI) (D $num-hinn))
				    (, ,-,))
			    (CONJP (CONJ en-en)
				   (IP-SUB (NP-SUB *con*)
					   (VBPS samtengi-samtenga)
					   (NP-OB1 (PRO-A þá-þá))
					   (NEG ekki-ekki)))))
IP-PPLs
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-N Þeir-hann))
	  (VBDI sáu-sjá)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV þá-þá))
	  (IP-PPL-OB1 (IP-PPL (NP-SBJ (NPR-A Jesúm-jesús))
			      (VAG-A ganganda-ganganda)
			      (PP (P á-á)
				  (NP (N-D sjó$-sjór) (D-D $num-hinn))))
		      (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
			     (IP-PPL (NP-SBJ *con*)
				     (VAN-A kominn-koma)
				     (ADVP (ADVR nær-nærri)
					   (NP (N-D skipi$-skip) (D-D $nu-hinn))))))
	  (. .-.)))

Different head tags

Conjoining ADJ and VAN:

	  (NP-PRD (N-N kerlingarskepna-kerlingarskepna)
		  (ADJP (ADJ gömul-gamall)
			(CONJP (CONJ og-og) (VAN slitin-slíta))))

Shared modifiers

Shared pre-modifiers

See PPCME/PPCEME Guidelines

NX, ADJX, etc. are only used with pre-modifiers, not post-modifiers.

Example for ADV heads with a shared pre-modifier ADV, notice the ADVX.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N-FSNDC á$-á) (D $in-hinn))
	  (VBD-IA3SD skar-skera)
	  (ADVP (ADV svo-svo)
		(ADV skýrt-skýra)
		(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
		       (ADVX (ADV greinilega-greinilega))))
	  (PP (P-D úr-úr)
	      (NP (NS-NPDIC landamerkjum-landamerki)
		  (NP-POS (Q hvorratveggja-hvorratveggur) (NS-FPGDC jarðan$-jarða) (D $na-hinn))))

Example for NP-POS as a pre-modifier.

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q-N sumir-sumur) (NS-N samhljóðendur-samhljóðandi))
	  (HVPI hafa-hafa)
	  (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO-A sín-sinn))
		  (NS-A líkneski-líkneski)
		  (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
			 (NX (N-A nafn-nafn)))
		  (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
			 (NX (N-A jartein-jartein)))))
  (ID FIRSTGRAMMAR,.110)) 

Shared post-modifiers

Always attached as high as possible.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBDI hljóp-hlaupa)
	  (PP (P yfir-yfir)
	      (NP (N-A þúfu-þúfa) (CONJ eða-eða) (N-A garðsrúst-garðsrúst) (ADJ-N lága-lágur)))))
PP post-modifier
	  (NP-SPR (N male)
		  (CONJ and)
		  (N female)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (Q all) (N flesh))))
      (NP (NP (Q alle) (D +te) (N delis))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (Q al) (D +te) (N rychesse)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (Q al) (D +to) (N wurschipe)))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (D +tis) (N wordle))))
      (ID CMAELR3,55.933))
CP-REL post-modifier
      (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO$ his) (NS wi+geles))
              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                     (NP (PRO$ his) (NS wrenches)))
              (, .)
              (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                      (C +tt)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO us))
                              (PP (P wi+d)
                                  (NP *T*-1))
                              (VBP asaille+d))))
      (, .)
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.220.3201))
NP-POS post-modifier
( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ og-og)
	      (HVI hafið-hafa)
	      (PP (ADVP (ADV þar-þar))
		  (P fyrir-fyrir))
	      (NP-OB1 (N-A þökk-þökk)
		      (CONJ og-og)
		      (N-A vináttu-vinátta)
		      (NP-POS (PRO-A mína-minn)))
	      (. ,-,)))

Shared pre- and post-modifiers

Sometimes the first conjunct has a post-modifier which is also potentially shared with the second conjunct.

If the conjunction is definitely between two word-level constituents, then there can be ambiguity in the size of the constituents that are conjoined, just as in the "shared pre-modifier" case as above. This situation is handled as in the examples below:

(NP-SBJ (N-N Ótti)
        (D-N sá)
        (CONJP (CONJ og)
               (NX (N-N skelfing))))
             (NP-SBJ (N-N upprekstrarland-upprekstrarland)
		        (NP-POS (NS-G bænda-bóndi))
		        (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
		      	              (NX (N-N afrétti-afréttur))))

Correlative conjunction

"annaðhvort eða" 'either or' is treated similarly to correlative conjunctions, such as BÆÐI OG.

ANNAÐHVORT is treated as written for pos-tagging purposes. Thus, when it is written as one word, the tag is OTHER+WPRO, but when it is written as two words, it is tagged as in the examples below:

			    (PP (P svo-svo)
				(CP-ADV (C að-að)
					(IP-SUB (ADVP-3 (ADV hér-hér))
						(MDDS skyldi-skulu)
						(PP (ADVP *ICH*-3)
						    (P fyrir-fyrir))
						(VB koma-koma)
						(NP-SBJ (OTHER+WPRO annaðhvort-annaðhvort) (NS-N sektir-sektir) (CONJ eða-eða) (N-N sjálfdæmi-sjálfdæmi)))))))
	  (. .-.)))
( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	      (RDPI Verður-verða)
	      (IP-INF-SPE (OTHER+WPRO annaðhvort-annaðhvort)
			  (IP-INF-SPE (IP-INF-SPE (TO að-að)
						  (VB taka-taka)
						  (NP-OB1 (N-A umboð-umboð)
							  (NP-POS (PRO-G hennar-hún))))
				      (CONJP (CONJ og-og)
					     (IP-INF-SPE (VB láta-láta)
							 (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO-A hana-hún))
								 (VB fara-fara)
								 (ADVP-DIR (ADV hingað-hingað))))))
			  (CONJP (CONJ eða-eða)
				 (NP (D-N hitt-hinn)
				     (ADV ella-ella)
				     (CP-THT-SPE-PRN (C að-að)
						     (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO-N þið-þú))
								 (MDPI munuð-munu)
								 (DO gera-gera)
								 (CP-ADV-SPE (WADVP-1 0)
									     (C sem-sem)
									     (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
											 (NP-SBJ (PRO-D ykkur-þú))
											 (VBPI líkar-líka))))))))
	      (. .-.)))

Word-level correlative conjunction

HVORKI NÉ

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-N það-það))
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (ADJP (CONJ hvorki-hvorki) (ADJ-N hægt-hægur) (CONJ né-né) (ADJ-N skrautlegt-skrautlegur))
	  (. .-.))
  (ID HOMILIUBOK,.211))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ-1 Hvorki-hvorki)
	  (HVPI hefi-hafa)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N ég-ég))
	  (VBN brugðið-bregða)
	  (NP-OB1 (CONJ *ICH*-1)
		  (N-D vexti-vöxtur)
		  (CONJ né-né)
		  (N-D nafni-nafn))

BÆÐI OG

		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hún-hún))
			  (HVPS hafi-hafa)
			  (RP upp-upp)
			  (BEN verið-vera)
			  (VAN numin-nema)
			  (CONJ-1 bæði-bæði)
			  (PP (P með-með)
			      (NP (CONJ *ICH*-1)
				  (N-D önd-önd)
				  (CONJ og-og)
				  (N-D líkama-líkami)))))

Phrase-level correlative conjunction

See the PPCME2, PPCEME documentation

PP
(PP (CONJ hvorki-hvorki)
    (PP (P á-á)
        (NP (D-D þessu-þessi) (N-D fjalli-fjall)))
    (CONJP (CONJ né-né)
           (PP (P til-til)
               (NP (NPR-G Jerúsalem-jerúsalem)))))
IP-SUB
						  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-4 (NP-SBJ (SUCH such)
									    (D a)
									    (N plotte)
									    (RRC (VAN (VAN made) (CONJ and) (VAN recorded))
										 (PP (P to)
										     (NP (N memorie)))))
								    (, ,)
								    (MD may)
								    (CONJ both)
								    (VB minister)
								    (NP-OB1 (N light))
								    (PP (P to)
									(NP (Q anie) (ADJ publique) (N designation))))
							  (, :)
							  (CONJP (CONJ and)
								 (IP-SUB=4 (ALSO also)
									   (VB serue)
									   (IP-INF (TO to)
										   (VB excite)
										   (NP-OB1 (ADJ voluntary) (NS endeuours)))))))))
				  (, ;)

Floated conjunctions

See the PPCME2, PPCEME documentation

Extraposed CONJPs

Extraposed CONJPs of single words. CONJP added even if there would be no CONJP if there was no extraposition involved.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NEG eigi-ekki)
	  (VBDI (VBDI át-éta)
		(CONJP *ICH*-1))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hann-hann))
	  (CONJP-1 (CONJ né-né) (VBDI drakk-drekka))
	  (. .-.)))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-N Hann-hann))
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (NP-PRD (ADJP (ADJ-N vænn-vænn)
			(CONJP *ICH*-1))
		  (N-N maður-maður)
		  (CONJP-1 (CONJ og-og) (ADJ-N vinsæll-vinsæll)))
	  (. .-.)))