PP

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Head types

P - the only head type for prepositions

Stranded prepositions

[...] það máttu reiða þig upp á. (Piltur og stúlka)

For "chopped" or deleted/omitted prepositions in elision contexts, see the discussion in CP-CMP.

	      (CP-ADV (C 0)
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR-N Sigríður-sigríður))
			      (VBDI ræddi-ræða)
			      (PP (P við-við)
				  (NP (NPR-A Indriða-indriði)))
			      (ADVP (ADVR eins)
				    (PP (P og)
					(CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
						(C 0)
						(IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
							(PP (P (CODE {við}))
							    (NP (D-A hina-hinn) (NS-A gest$-gestur) (D-A $ina-hinn))))))))))
	  (. .-.)))

RP Specifiers of P

(PP (RP Upp-upp)
    (P af-af)
    (NP (N-D héraði-hérað)
        (D-D því-það)
(PP (RP Fram-fram)
    (P-D af-af)
    (NP (N-D dal-dalur) (D-D þessum-þessi)))

ADJP Complements of P

See PPCME2,PPCEME guidelines

"fyrir víst", "á óvart"


but "satt að segja" projects an NP:

(NP-OB1 (ADJ-NSNSP satt-sannur)
	(CP-EOP (WNP-2 0)
	        (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
		        (TO að-að)
		        (VB-TA mæla-mæla))))

Complements of PP

Complements of P are always bare phrasal tags, e.g. NP, ADJP, not: NP-OB1, NP-POS, NP-COM.

Usually the complement of a P is an NP (and this is the default where it is difficult to tell), but ADJP and ADVP can also be the complement of P in a limited number of cases (usually fixed expressions); see PPCME2,PPCEME, and also: UM HEILT, and UNDIR EINS. Occasionally IP-INF or IP-INF-PRP is the complement of P, usually with the prepositions TIL and UM.

Note that in "allt í einu", "einu" projects an NP complement, not a PP complement. See NP-MSR.

Note: SANNUR, in e.g. "með sönnu að segja", projects an NP when it is the complement of P.

Fixed expressions where a PP takes an ADJP complement:

  • Ekki leið á löngu.

ADVP complements of P

Put these in right places: eftir á, í frá (sér), þvert yfir ADVP + RP + P

  • þar út úr
  • þar upp á

ADVP + P

  • hér eftir
  • hér um
  • héðan af
  • jafnan í
  • ofan til
  • þar að
  • þar af
  • þar á
  • þar fram
  • þar fyrir
  • þar frá
  • þar um
  • þar við: (PP (ADVP (ADV þar-þar)) (P við-við))

P + ADVP

  • að framan
  • að ofan
  • að utan
  • fram hjá
  • fyrir framan
  • fyrir ofan
  • í burt
  • í framan
  • í frammi
  • í gegnum
  • í senn
  • í sundur: (PP (P í-í) (ADVP (ADV sundur-sundur))))
  • í þar
  • til samans
  • undir eins
  • þaðan af

Also used for some fixed expressions with particles such as héðan í frá, þaðan í frá (note that in these expressions, "frá" never takes a complement):

                                   (PP (ADV héðan-héðan)
					  (P í-í)
					  (ADVP (ADV frá-frá)))


NOTE: however, that "inn" is RP in "þar inn", and "inni" is ADV in "þar inni"; both of these cases are parsed as ADVP, rather than PP.


PP + ADVP + CP

  • nema þar sem / þar er / þars
  • nema þá er
				    (PP (P nema-nema)
					(ADVP (ADV þá-þá)
					      (CP-REL (WADVP-4 0)
						      (C er-er)
						      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-4)
								      (NP-SBJ (PRO-N hann-hann))
								      (VBPI hafnar-hafna)
								      (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO-D sínu-sinn))
									      (N-D eðli-eðli)))
ADVP complements of recursive PP
(PP (ADVP-1 (ADV Þar))
    (P á)
    (PP (P ofan)
        (ADVP *ICH*-1)))

RP complements of P

It is rare that two particles modify a PP, but it happens:

út af fyrir mig

Q complements of P

( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (VBDI fóru-fara)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N þeir-hann))
	  (ADVP-DIR (ADV norður-norður))
	  (PP (Q-A allt-allur)
	      (P í-í)
	      (NP (NPR-A Bólstaðarhlíð-bólstaðarhlíð)))
	  (PP (P í-í)
	      (NP (N-D hríð$-hríð) (D-D $inni-hinn)))
	  (. .-.))
  (ID 12XX.STURLUNGA.NAR-SAG,407.666))

CP complements of P

Usually CP-ADV (introduced by e.g. EF, ÞÓTT, ÞÓ) or CP-CMP.

CP-THT complement of P: Hann talaði um að hann vildi verða ungur á ný. CP-THT used for complements of UM, TIL, and all other prepositions where one of the following conditions apply:

                  1) The P can potentially take a pronoun and a CP-THT-PRN, e.g. "með því að", etc.
                  2) The P is selected for by the verb, e.g. "tala um CP".

CP-QUE complement of P: indirect questions.

PP-recursion

PPs can also be recursive, as in the example below. See also Á EFTIR, MILLUM, MILLI and ÞAR Á MILLI, FYRIR OFAN and Í GEGN.

                              (PP (P í-í)
				    (PP (P gegnum-gegnum)
					   (NP (PRO-A það-það))))

While this structure is relatively rare in the English corpora, it is not rare in Icelandic. However,...

IMPORTANT: THREE GUIDELINES ABOUT PP RECURSION:

1) We treat PP recursion as a last resort, and use another parse if there is another obvious parse available.

2) The highest P in the recursive PP (e.g. "í" in the example above) is always a P which is clearly a preposition on independent grounds (i.e. it can head non-recursive PPs).

3) (For parsing:) If you are not sure if a given structure should be a recursive PP while parsing, do not make a recursive PP until you have first rejected a) an analysis in which the first element is an RP attached high at the IP level, or b) an analysis in which the first element is an RP modifying a PP.

Conjoined Ps

Very rarely, Ps are conjoined at word level.

		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO-N hver-hver))
			  (C eð-eð)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (PP (P í-í)
				      (NP (D-A þann-sá) (N-A tíma-tími)))
				  (BEDI var-vera)
				  (NP-MSR (ADV mjög-mjög))
				  (PP (P á-á)
				      (NP (N-A aldur-aldur)))
				  (VBN kominn-koma)
				  (, ,-,)
				  (PP (P undir-undir)
				      (CONJ eða-eða)
				      (P yfir-yfir)
				      (NP (N-A áttrætt-áttrætt))))))
	  (. .-.)))
	  (PP (P (P Fyrir)
		 (CONJP *ICH*-2))
	      (NP (PRO-A hann))
	      (CONJP-2 (CONJ og) (ALSO líka) (P eftir)))

Movement to Spec,PP

See TIL AÐ (IP-INF) and NP-COM (Guði til handa).