Head Types

From Icelandic Parsed Historical Corpus (IcePaHC)
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Note on Case: applying to Determiners, Adjectives, Nominals: we have adopted, across the board, a policy of tagging Case on the word-level, but not on the phrase level (grammatical relations are tagged on the phrase level). So if you are searching for Subject, Object, etc., search for the phrase labels, but if you search for Case, you'll have to indicate the appropriate word-level tag.

Participles, VAN and VBN, are tagged for non-nominative cases only, in cases where a passive participle is unambiguously case marked. By default, VAN or VBN is just tagged "VAN" or "VBN", and it is assumed to be in the nominative form when tagged just "VAN" or "VBN".

Nouns

  • N-N - noun, nominative
  • NS-A - noun, plural, accusative
  • NPR-D - noun, proper, dative
  • NPRS-G - non, proper, plural, genitive

ONE form of EINN ONES plural of EINN

Determiners

  • D-N - determiner, nominiative
  • WD-A - WH-determiner, accusative

In cases where the form of a word is completely ambiguous between a demonstrative determiner and a pronoun, the default tag is PRO, as you can see under PRO below.

Pronouns

  • PRO-D - pronoun, dative
  • WPRO-G - wh-pronoun, genitive

Note that sometimes personal pronouns and demonstrative determiners are homophonous in Icelandic. In cases of unresolvable ambiguity, the default tag is PRO (click on PRO for an example).

Adjectives

  • ADJ-N - adjective (positive), nominative
  • ADJR-A - correlative, accusative
  • ADJS-D - superlative, dative
  • WADJ-G - wh-adjective, genitive
  • SUCH-N

Quantifiers

  • Q-N - quantifier (positive), nominative: fáir 'few'
  • QR-A - correlative, accusative: færri 'fewer'
  • QS-D - superlative, dative: fæstum 'fewest'
  • WQ - wh-quantifier, hver as a WQ receives case but not hvort 'whether'

Adverbs

  • ADV - adverb
  • WADV - wh-adverb, like hvar 'where'

Prepositions

  • P - the only head type for prepositions

Particles

Verbs

verb present, indicative present, subjunctive past, indicative past, subjunctive imperative pres. participle past part. passive part.
vera ('be') BEPI BEPS BEDI BEDS BEI BAG BEN BAN
gera ('do') DOPI DOPS DODI DODS DOI DAG DON DAN
hava ('have') HVPI HVPS HVDI HVDS HVI HAG HVN HAN
modal MDPI MDPS MDDI MDDS MDI MAG MDN MAN
verða ('become') RDPI RDPS RDDI RDDS RDI RAG RDN RAN
main VBPI VBPS VBDI VBDS VBI VAG VBN VAN
  • VBP - verb, present tense
  • VBD - verb, past tense
  • VBN - past participle. See the Note at the beginning of this page with regard to case-marking on VBN; case-marking on VBN should only occur inside of participial clause complements.
  • VAN - passive participle; NOTE: the main verb in impersonal passives is "VAN", though this can be difficult to distinguish from the past participle for some verbs, e.g. KOMA. If it is completely ambiguous, VAN is the default. See VAN or VBN?. See the Note at the beginning of this page with regard to case-marking on VAN.

VAG progressive participle. This can also mean the passive progressive in older texts: see Quirky Case for an example.

  • MD (modals) unlike the Penn English corpora, "MD" is a modal in the infinitive; finite modals are "MDPI","MDDI", etc.; nonfinite modals are "MDN","MAG". All auxiliaries with modal meaning which take a bare VB complement are tagged MD*. Additionally, the verbs GETA and are tagged MD* when they mean "to be able to" and take a complement headed by a VBN (i.e. "ég get þáttað vel"); also, on the rare occasion that KUNNA takes VBN it is tagged MD. When a verb take an AÐ-marked infinitive, it is not tagged MD*. Past infinitives of modals, which only occur with preterite-present verbs, are just tagged MD like normal infinitives. There is no "MDD" tag.
  • HV only "hafa"; "eiga" is tagged VB... like other main verbs

Other

  • LS (list marker)
  • FW (foreign word) - If a potential foreign word is found in the Icelandic Dictionary (Íslensk orðabók) it is not tagged as FW. A string of latin words is dominated by a phrase label LATIN.