ADJP

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ADJP, adjective phrase

As in the PPCME2, single-word adjectives only project an ADJP at the clause level (http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/annotation/syn-const.htm#clause_adjp)

Head types

  • ADJ - adjective, positive
  • ADJR - correlative
  • ADJS - superlative

ADJ-heads are case marked: ADJ-N, ADJ-A, ADJ-D, ADJ-G; ADJR-N, ADJR-A, ADJR-D, ADJR-G; ADJS-N, ADJS-A, ADJS-D, ADJS-G.

Note that plural is not denoted on ADJ.

ADJ iprecedes ADJ

						  (NP-2 (D a)
							(ADJ famose)
							(ADJ new)
(ID ALHATTON-E3-H,2,240.5))

Comparatives in ADJP

See CP-CMP. If the object of the comparison is simply a dative NP, the PP level is omitted and the phrase is parsed as parallel to "NP Complements of PP" in the PPCME2 (http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/annotation/syn-phrase.htm#adjp_comp_np). The NP is *not* given an extended dash tag, but dative is marked on the pos-tag, as in the example below:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N-N Sjón-sjón))
	  (BEP er-vera)
	  (ADJP (NP (N-D sögu-saga))
		(ADJR-N ríkari-ríkur))
	  (, ,-,)))

ADJ heads of ADJP

In the "eins...(PP ... og ...)" construction, "eins" is an ADJ heading an ADJP, as below.

(ADJP (ADJ eins)
      (PP (P fyrir)
          (NP (PRO-D honum) (CONJ og-og) (PRO-D henni))))

Similarly, "eins" can head a predicate ADJP, (ADJP (ADJ eins)) ,as in "þeir eru eins".

In the comparative EINS OG construction (see also CP-CMP, which can be an ADJP or an ADVP, "eins" is tagged "ADVR". Even if the construction is an ADJP at the highest level, "eins" is tagged ADVR, whether or not there is an adjective present to head the ADJP, as in the examples in the CP-CMP section.

When there is no ADJ in the "eins og" construction, "eins" is still tagged ADVR, and the whole phrase may be either an ADJP or an ADVP at the highest level.

ADVR heads of ADJP

The "eins og" construction can be an ADJP or an ADVP at the highest level.

When "eins og" is an ADJP, it can be headed by the ADVR "eins" alone, as in the example below. This is the only time an adverb heads an ADJP, and it is equivalent to saying that there is a null ADJ head present.

( (ADJP (ADVR eins)
        (PP (P og)
            (CP-CMP ...)))

as in the following:

 (CP-QUE-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (BEPI Er-vera)
				  (NP-SBJ (PRO-N það-það))
				  (NEG ekki-ekki)
				  (ADJP (ADVR eins-eins)
					(PP (P og-og)
					    (CP-CMP-SPE (WADVP-1 0)
							(C 0)
							(IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
								    (NP-SBJ (PRO-N ég-ég))
								    (VBPS sjái-sjá)
								    (IP-PPL-SPE (NP-SBJ (N-A sneypu$-sneypa)
											(D-A $na-hinn)
											(NP-PRN (PRO-A hana-hún)
												(NP-PRN (N-A tengdamóður-tengdamóðir)
													(NP-POS (PRO-A mína-minn)))))
										(ADVP-LOC (ADV þarna-þarna))
										(VAG lifandi-lifandi))))))))
	  (. ?-?)))


See the EINS OG page and the CP-CMP documentation for more examples of EINS OG.

Phrasal heads of ADJP (i.e. headless ADJP)

For NP-MSR projecting ADJP, see LANGUR under treatment of individual words, and NP-MSR#NP-MSR_heading_ADJP.

Modifiers of ADJ

There can be pre-head modifiers of ADJ inside an ADJP, which are parsed as sisters to ADJ. These can be ADV, ADVP, and it also appears to be the case in Icelandic that some PPs can function as adverbials modifying an ADJ. We annotate these exactly analogously to examples pre-head ADVP in the PPCME2, PPCEME corpora, but the label is PP rather than ADVP; see the predicate ADJP in the example below:

	      (NP (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ great))
		  (N honour)))
  (ID ALHATTON-E3-H,2,245.32))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-PMPN Þeir-hann)
		  (, ,-,)
		  (CP-REL (C-R sem-sem)
			  (IP-SUB-2 (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				    (VBP-IA3PP rita-rita)
				    (IP-SUB-PRN=2 (CONJ og-og)
						  (NP-SBJ *con*)
						  (VBN-UA ritað-rita)
						  (HVP-IA3PP hafa-hafa))
				    (PP (P-A um-um)
					(NP (NP-POS (N-NSGDC lands$-land) (D $ins-hinn))
					    (NP (N-NSNIC gagn-gagn) (CONJ og-og) (N-FPNIC nauðsynjar-nauðsyn)))))))
	  (, ,-,)
	  (VBP-IA3PP verða-verða)
	  (NEG ekki-ekki)
	  (ADJP (PP (P-A á-á)
		    (NP (ONE-PNSA eitt-einn)))
		(ADJ-MPNSP sáttir-sáttur))
	  (PP (P-A um-um)
	      (NP (D-DNSA það-sá) (N-NSAIC efni-efni)))
	  (; ;-;)))

Complements of ADJ

In short: Dative complements of ADJ are parsed NP or NP-CMP, genitive complements as NP or NP-POS.

NP-CMP is for dative NP comparatives like (ADJP (NP-CMP sögu) (ADJR ríkari)), (ADJP (NP-CMP gulli) (ADJR betri)).

The adjective "nærri" is tagged and parsed in the same way as "near" or "nearly" in the PPCEME, PPCME2, depending on its meaning (see Treatment of individual words ). When "nærri" means "near", as in "they were sailing near land", it is tagged "ADJ", projects an ADJP-LOC where ADJ has an NP complement, as below:

	 (ADJP-LOC (ADJ nær)
                   (NP (N landi)))

If "nærri" means "nearly", as in "it was nearly nighttime when they reached the town", it is tagged/parsed as an ADV (see Treatment of individual words and ADVP).

We also treat Instrumental Datives as complements of ADJ or VAN, where VAN projects an ADJP. Examples of this are:

bæjum skipað, 'farms loaded' (loaded with farms), skógi vaxið 'forest grown' (grown with trees, full of trees), "vaxinn víði ", etc.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ en-en)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (ADVP (ADV þó-þó))
	  (ADJP (ADVR betur-vel)
		(NP (NS-D bæjum-bær))
		(VAN skipað-skipa))
	  (PP (P á-á)
	      (NP (NS-D dögum-dagur)
		  (NP-POS (NPR-G Síðu<dash/>Halls-síðu<dash/>hallur))))
	  (. ,-,)) (ID 1850.PILTUR.NAR-FIC,.4))
(ADJP (NP (N-D skógi-skógur))
      (VAN vaxið-vaxa))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N-MSNIC Fagridalur-fagridalur)
		  (NP-PRN (D-MSN hinn-hinn) (ADJR-MSNWC eystri-eystur)))
	  (BEP ER-VERA)
	  (QP (Q-XMSN allur-allur))
	  (ADJP (ADJP (VAN-MSNSP VAXINN-VAXA)
		      (NP (N-MSNWP víði-víður)))
		(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
		       (ADJP (VAN-MSNSP VAFINN-VEFJA)
			     (PP (P-D í-í)
				 (NP (N-NSDIC grasi-gras))))))
	  (. ;-;)))

There is no -POS extension on NPs where there is no possessive relationship or subset-superset relationship between the NP and ADJ, e.g. no NP-POS in: "(ADJP fagurt (NP álits))". If there is a possessive relationship, or a subset-superset relationship between the ADJ and NP, e.g. "(ADJP fegurst (NP-POS fjallanna))", the genitive NPs inside an ADJP are labeled NP-POS. This is *not* the same as in the PPCME2,PPCEME, where NP complements of adjectives are labelled NP without dash tags like -COM, -MSR, or -POS.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO-N Þær-hún))
          (BEPI eru-vera)
	  (ADJP (NP-POS (Q-G allra-allur))
	        (ADJS-N fallegastar-fallegur))
          (. .-.)))

Extraction out of an empty ADJP

	  (CP-THT (C að-að)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR-N Ísland-ísland))
			  (BEDS væri-vera)
			  (ADJP (NP (PRO-D sér-sig))
				(ADVR svo-svo)
				(ADJ nálægt-nálægur)
				(CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
					(C sem-sem)
					(IP-SUB (ADJP (ADJP *T*-1)
						      (NP *ICH*-2))
						(ADVP-TMP (ADV þá-þá))
						(BEDI var-vera)
						(NP-2 (NPR-D Noregi-noregur)))))))
	  (. .-.)))

IP-INF Complements of ADJ

Frequently with VANUR, as in:

( (IP-MAT (NP-1 (NP (NP-POS (D-G Þess-sá) (N-G háttar-háttur))
		    (N-A augnaráð-augnaráð))
		(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
		       (NP (N-A tillit-tillit)
			   (NP-POS (NS-G stúlkna-stúlka)))))
	  (BEPI eru-vera)
	  (NP-SBJ (NS-N yngismenn-yngismaður))
	  (ADJP (ADJ-N vanir-vanur)
		(IP-INF (TO að-að)
			(VB skilja-skilja)
			(NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)))
	  (. ,-,)))

And the following example:

( (IP-MAT (CONJ en-en)
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR-N Ingveldur-ingveldur))
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (ADJP (ADV jafnan-jafnan)
		(ADJ-N vön-vanur)
		(IP-INF (TO að-að)
			(VB stinga-stinga)
			(PP (P að-að)
			    (NP (PRO-D henni-hún)))
			(NP-OB1 (N-D tóbakslaufi-tóbakslauf) (, ,-,) (N-D rjólbita-rjólbiti) (CONJ eða-eða) (N-D blöðkuvisk-blöðkuvisk))))
	  (, ,-,)
	  (PP (P ef-ef)
	      (CP-ADV (C 0)
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
			      (ADVP (ADV vel-vel))
			      (VBDS sagðist-saga))))
	  (. .-.)))


Sometimes the infinitival clause is coindexed with a dative pronoun, which itself is the true complement of the ADJ, as in the following example:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR-N Ingveldur-ingveldur))
	  (BEDI var-vera)
	  (ADJP (ADJ-N vön-vanur)
		(NP (PRO-D því-það)
		    (IP-INF-PRN (IP-INF (TO að-að)
					(VB gefa-gefa)
					(NP-OB2 (PRO-D þeim-það)
						(NP-PRN (NPR-D Indriða-indriði) (CONJ og-og) (NPR-D Sigríði-sigríður)))
					(NP-OB1 (N-A auga-auga)))
				(CONJP (CONJ og-og)
				       (IP-INF (TO *)
					       (VB gæta-gæta)
					       (NP-OB1 (PRO-G þess-það)
						       (, ,-,)
						       (CP-THT-PRN (C að-að)
								   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO-N þau-það))
									   (VBDI töluðust-tala)
									   (NEG ekki-ekki)
									   (NP-MSR (Q-N margt-margur))
									   (RP við-við)))))))))
	  (. ,-,)))

ÞYKJA VÆNT UM X

In this construction, VÆNT is an ADJ, projecting a bare ADJP. The "UM X" expression projects a PP, and the ADJP and PP are both attached high as sisters at the IP level. See the following examples:


                                       (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO-D mér-ég))
							      (VBPI þykir-þykja)
							      (ADJP (ADVR svo-svo) (ADJ-N vænt-vænn))
							      (PP (P um-um)
								  (IP-INF (TO að-að)
									  (VB sjá-sjá)
									  (NP-OB1 (PRO-A þig-þú)))))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ og-og)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBDI þótti-þykja)
	  (ADJP (ADV harla-harla) (ADJ-N vænt-vænn))
	  (PP (P um-um)
	      (NP (PRO-A þær-hún)